Updated: Oct 12
The world must hold itself accountable for looking back on history and putting together efforts to save the planet. Analyzing the correlation between dominance and change requires a continuous examination of the historical and contemporary periods. One must know that nature is the culmination of past activity, not independent of it. Looking back on this nature through the dense forests of India, we find many interesting people and clades with their sustainable lifestyles. I am sure you know what I mean: we're talking about tribes. But before we get onto them, let's briefly talk about the geography of India. The culturally rich spiritual land stretches across like a peninsula, surrounded by water on three sides. In the North, the Himalayas cover it, and the southeast and southwest part is bordered by the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea respectively. The fertile alluvial land of the Ganga Brahmaputra basin and the dense forests of Assam, Arunachal are noteworthy. We will begin with the article's main topic, tribes, and learn about them in detail. It is not that rare talking about them since they have become so extensive and proliferating in the literature. There are as many as 645 tribes in India (considered by the constitution), registered in Schedule 5. It identifies them as a community of indigenous people and socially disadvantaged people. Generally speaking, tribal communities reside in forests and hilly regions that are not easily accessible. They have a simple economy that is reliant on natural resources. In the wake of the process of modernization, the life and livelihood of tribal communities have changed.
They exhibit a variety of distinct cultural traits. Socio-economic factors, ecological factors, historically developed technologies, and demographic features are some influencing matters in tribal life. They do not have access to modern agricultural tools such as hybrid seeds, pesticides, insecticides, fertilizers, etc, resulting in low yields and dependent on the weather. There are traditional healing practices and taboos included in their health management style. The Tribes in India are unique and have rich culture, music, entertainment, and habitation. The structure of their houses, eating habits, resources utilization, coping mechanism, and socialization processes are typical. Indigenous modes of production connect to the biophysical environment (jal, jungle, and jameen). They derive their identity, sense of unity, and resistance from their relationship with the ecosystem. These individuals are intrinsically linked to their environment through numerous means, including economic exchange, ceremonies, language, and spiritual practices. Surprisingly, they use the term phrase of the place to explain their deep connection with their micro-ecology. For them, the meaning of forests is not by their physical peculiarities but through their interaction with their environment. Particularly, their ecology shapes their 40 collective imagination, beliefs, and social systems. It comes in one direction how well they manage forests and their cultural linking. They are the reasons for the rich habitat and preservation of forests. It is they who made us believe that forest-dwelling is a safe and beautiful experience.
Before putting more thoughts about these indigenous people in your brain, there is much more that you must know. The word tribe has a vast history that you must consider. We know that traditionally all ethnic groups of India are classified as Jatis. Tribes are generally Berkeleian groups. And the most acceptable form with Tribes in India was Jannah, which consisted of people from a recurrent cultural pattern (Chaudhary 1977). In the 1891 Census, they have named forest tribes. However, in the 1931 Census, forest tribes were again replaced by primitive tribes. In 1935, they were referred to as backward tribes. The habitat of scheduled tribes has recently been called the tribal region, as part of the market in roads and neocolonialist expansion.
There are numerous policies for the development of these groups. The Government of India has initiated grand economic and social developments among them, starting with the five-year plan. Though the Panchasheel Yojana bought not much change to their conditions. In India, the Ministry of Tribal Affairs is responsible for the overall development of scheduled tribes. After the bifurcation of the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment in 1999, this Ministry was established to provide integrated socio-economic development for the Scheduled Tribes (STs), the most disadvantaged in Indian society, in a coordinated and planned manner. The Ministry of Tribal Affairs shall develop policy, plan, and coordinate programs of development for Scheduled Tribes. It will be the responsibility of the Central Ministries/Departments, State Governments, and Union Territory Administrations to plan, coordinate, monitor, and evaluate sectoral programs and schemes designed to develop these communities. For each sector, a central ministry or department acts as the nodal ministry or department. These Tribes in India are in the developing stages with respect to education and basic necessities.
Coming on the article, we have ten tribes belonging to PVTGs that have a specialty in their culture, festivals, food, and living standards.
Major Tribes in India That Are Surviving Through Ages.
1. Chenchu Tribe.
Chenchu, also known as Chenchuvaru or Chenchwar, is a small nomadic forest tribe of Orissa. They belong to the hunters and gathering category for sustaining their livelihood. Some believe that they are named after an interpretation that they live under a ‘Chettu’ tree or their habit of eating mice. Inhabiting in Nallamalai hills of eastern India, they believe in the female deity Brahma Rambha of Srisailam. There is a belief that Chechus was the first forest dweller who came before even the Dravidian people. As per the 2011 Census, their population numbered only 13 people. They have their own language known as Chenchu- a dialect of Telugu from the Dravidian style. Tribes in India are prevalent as discussed above but the Chenchu Tribe is slowly decreasing.
Dress And Ornaments.
Men do wear loincloths (gochi). The females prefer to wear sarees. Additionally, they have ornaments of cheap metal bought from nearby cities. The young kids of 2-3 years are usually naked. It appears that females dress well than men then.
In the past, they slept under trees or rocks, without building any homes. It was because they lived entirely in the forest. Presently, they have temporary settlements of thatched huts. Some can even be found inside forests. However, most of their habitats are located near the edge of forests. They live in small settlements called gudem or Penta. The main type of huts is cone-shaped thatched huts, with 5-8 at one place and others scattered over a range of 5-6 km. Huts are built with bamboo wattle walls. Generally, having three kinds of them- chuttu gudhisa (round hut), Mula gudisha (square hut), and kottamu (rectangular hut). Due to suspicion of wandering evils, they change their settlements from place to place.
As previously stated, they are hunters and gatherers. They usually hunt animals for their survival. Apart, they also consume tubers, roots of different trees, fruits, and honey. Because they do not kill female animals due to their superstitions, it is a positive impact on the ecology. Smoking and drinking are prevalent in them. They make liquor from Mahua flowers and even sell them for extra income. In agriculture, they rely on millets, like Bajra and Jowar. They have the same eating habits as the other Tribes in India with a small variation.
Religious Beliefs and Practises.
Usually, they worship both Hindu gods and goddesses as well as their own tribal deities. Stone slabs are propitiated under a tree and used for this. Their traditional god is Lord Venkateshwar. As well, after hunting any animal, the flesh is offered to their deity Garelamai-Sama. While they used to celebrate all festivals, Shivaratri is an important festival for them. There is a belief in witchcraft, black magic, white magic, and other forms of supernatural power in them.
Their dance form is just for social interaction and not for religious purposes. Other Tribes in India do it for religious purposes. One of their dance forms is Chenchu Natakram, which is a combination of step dance and drum beat. Their primary song theme is love and romance.
2. Gadaba Tribe.
In one of the prominent tribal communities of Orissa, the Gadaba tribe presents some spectacular characteristics. We can even say one of the prominent groups of Tribes in India. Gada refers to a brook in the Godavari valley, and so the name Gadaba. They belong to Proto-Austroid origin, speaking the Gutob language of Autsri- Asiatic origin. Their habitat belongs to the areas of the southern district of Koraput, Orissa, and extends across zones of the Vishakapatnam and the Bastar region. Living above 3000 sea level, they lie in the central belt of Koratpur, the eastern Ghats of Orissa. As per the 2001 Census, their population is 72,982, which accounts for 0.90 percent of the total tribal populace of the state.
Dress and Ornaments.
They dress in very scanty clothes. Women wear colorful striped cloth, big-sized rounder silver necklaces, and copper earrings with a long circumference, whereas men use a piece of cloth called lenguthi with a flap, which hangs down in the front. Alongside, the ladies majorly decorate their bodies with ornaments. They wear peculiar earrings: made from brass, silver, or aluminium. Besides, they use ornaments like rings and mudies for fingers and nose, bangles for hands made from brass, and beaded necklaces. Their hair is combed neatly with a neat look, pinned at the back.
Their village consists of well-defined compounds marked by stone walls. Sardar or village chief house with dance arena and shrine of village deities are all located in the center of the structure. Their housing colony has no particular layout, but they lie on both sides of the street. Their three types are Mahad Dien, Dandual Dien, and Chhendi Dien. The first two are rectangular and square, whereas the third is a conical-shaped house with a circular shape. They are made of stone and mud walls with grass as the flooring of thatched roofs. For extra earnings, they do work on daily wages. Additionally, hill-brooming is common among them for generating supplementary income.
Their primary food item is Mandia Pej, a traditional recipe. Besides, boiled rice, tamarind chutney, and mango with pulses are prevalent. Among other vegetables they consume are roots, bamboo shoots, and jackfruit. On festive occasions, they eat meat, fish, and chicken. The Gadaba tribes usually believe in drinking and smoking. Landa bear, which is a rice beer, is prevalent in them. They also collect the juice of the salap tree, which is also their favorite among drinks. They manufacture Cheroot powder from dried tobacco that they use to smoke through dry sal leaf. They usually practice Swidden cultivation and majorly depend on rainwater. They grow rice, some pulses, and practice pastoralism and fishing for survival. These groups under Tribes in India are the ones who are good agriculturists.
Religious Beliefs and Practices.
Their spiritual world revolves around natural as well as supernatural objects. An enshrined deity is enshrined inside their homes on a sacred pillar near the hearth. When laying the foundations of a house, it is ritually installed as protection from evils and as a blessing. They worship God and Goddesses, the chief of them is Thakurani, enshrined on the outskirts of the village. The evil spirit Duma, according to them, causes diseases and calamities. For them, dance and music are love. Their famous Dhemsha dance is performed by women who wear Kerang clothes. The men play musical instruments, and the women dance in semi-circles.
They spin threads immensely from the Kerenga type, extracted from forests. Then, the women swirl them into colourful clothes. They have many festivals like Chaita Parab, Dashera, Dewali, and Banandapana Parab, each of their significance.
3. Dongria Kandha.
The Dongria Kandha, considered forest dwellers among the category of Tribes in India, live in the Niyamgiri hills in Bissamcuttack, Kalyansingpur, and the Muniguda hills in Rayagada. These mountains, which are part of the Eastern Ghats, rise steeply from 1000 feet to several peaks, of which the highest is 4970 feet above sea level. Being hill-dwellers, forest dwellers, and highland dwellers, their neighbors call them Dongria, but they call themselves Dongran Kuan or Drili Kuan.
Dress And Ornaments.
Dongrias are wholly fashionable compared to other Tribes in India when it comes to their attire. Apart from their famous festival, Meria Festival, this is one of the qualities that makes them stand out from others. The men wear a long and narrow loincloth with two embroidered ends at the front and the back. They are called Drili. In contrast, the women use two pieces of cloth, each measuring 3-4 feet and an inch and a half wide. Wrapping the first piece around the waist with a knot in front, another covers the upper body, like an apron. The women fix a wooden comb to their hair knot, which adorns their hair and keeps it tucked away. Women and men alike can complement their unique hairstyles with a wide variety of hairpins and clips. Women wear brass for ornaments such as bangles, anklets, toe rings, neck rings, and nose rings.
On the hill slopes, their villages are in between thick vegetation. At its entrance within the mango grove and jackfruit trees, the shrine of the village deity- Jatrakudi Penu, is enshrined. The walls are painted with geometric coloured designs to protect the people from evil eyes. Their houses have low thatched roofs hardly 2-3 ft above the ground. They are constructed upon a rectangular ground plan. It consists of a spacious rectangular room and other small rooms at the back with verandahs in front and back. Trading through a barter system is one of the ordinary systems in them. Additionally, wage-earning is less common since they believe in mutual exchange and treat everyone as equals.
They are known for their horticulture practices. They eat three times a day, and their food consists mainly of cereals, pulses, vegetables, maize, millets, kating, baila and jhudang, roots likerani Kanda, fruits, and green leaves. Fond of Mahua liquor and sago palm juice, they also drink Kadali-Kalu and Guda Kalu. The Non-veg items prepared by them include fish, chicken, mutton, pork, beef, etc. They also chew raw tobacco. They plant vegetables and fruits like jackfruits, mangoes, bananas, pineapples, and turmeric plantations. They also raise animal husbandry for their use in ritual occasions. They love drinking and smoking as much as other Tribes in India.
Religious Beliefs and Practices.
They strongly believe in the existence of many supernatural beings. Their pantheon consists of deities, gods, and spirits. Jatrakudi penu, Hira Penu, and Niyam-raja Penu are their village deities, whereas the household spirits consist of Lai-penu, Sita-penu, Danda Penu, etc. They have numerous magico-religious functions to mediate between humans and supernaturals.
4. Jenu Kuruba.
Jenu Kuruba derived its name from roaming the forests for honey, edible tubers, fruits, etc. They inhabit 2000 square miles of forest among the Tribes in India, located in the tri-state conglomerate of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala. They usually have short stature, curly hair, and a dark complexion.
When the world crashed, a vegetable called burude (bitter Guard) survived. A piece of earth eventually became home for this vegetable. The Jenu Kuruba tribe was perpetrated by a man and a woman descended from this burude.
According to the second version, the world came into existence in 40 days when the male and female Kont [God] created the first man and woman from the first handful of mud. As shown in history, the Jenu Kurubas used to supply elephants to the Chola and Pallava kings in the mid-1970s. In 1972, they played a crucial role in capturing and training wild elephants since they were skilled mahouts and very knowledgeable about the flora and fauna of the forest.
Dress and Ornaments.
Men wear Lungi with shirts. And there is a common tradition of wearing white in their marriage, whereas the women wear sarees [Vidyuth Joshi (1998)]. They comb their hair by applying oil, wear glass bangles and kumkum, and decorate with jasmine flowers. They also wear bead necklaces and toe rings in ornamentation. Generally, older people do not wear chappals. The attire of men is somehow similar to other Tribes in India. In general, they marry within their tribal group. But due to recent contact with other tribes, this practice is slowly changing.
Earlier, An elliptical cluster of ten to fifteen huts stands within the forest, surrounded by hillocks. Built of bamboo slits they have a wall that measures five to ten feet high and eight feet wide. There is the use of mud for plastering them. Their roof is slanting and has a small door. Bamboo curtains divide the hut so that a kitchen is available on the right side. There is a head-zone (tale kade) and a foot-zone (Kal kade) in the outside world. The head zone is near the wall opposite the doorway used for the dining hall. Around the hearth are utensils and pots. Bamboo mugs hung from vertical bamboo pillars. Currently, through schemes of the Indian government for the Tribes in India, they are provided with brick houses for their improved living conditions. They are good agriculturists as professionals.
The population of Jenu Kuruba is predominantly non-vegetarian with their dependence upon the flesh of dead animals. They also hunt. These may include goats, pigs, deer, rabbits, hens, other birds, etc. They are fond of the flesh of rats and for avoiding the beef from the edibles. Apart, they prepare sambhar and palye with vegetables, vegetable leaves, and pulses. With Tur dal as their main pulses, Ragi as their staple food, and fruits and nuts as additional food supply, the tribe relies on their local yield or nearby markets. They celebrate festivals with the preparation of sweet Payasa. The consumption of coffee, tea, milk, and milk products is quite common. Smoking beedis, chewing betel leaves, areca nuts, and tobacco and drinking practices (alcohol) are common among men and women. Obbittu and Payasa are their famous sweets made on occasion.
Religious Practices and Beliefs.
They believe in Shiva, the lord. Among the festivities, they celebrate Navaratri, Diwali, Dusshera, etc. Also, after every marriage occasion, they pray to their ancestral spirits to bless the couple. They do believe in evil and malevolent spirits and deities unlike other Tribes in India. One such type of Black magic known as Bunde kareyuvudu is known to have contact with the dead person.
It is a particular backward tribe residing in the Chattisgarh, Dindori, Mandla, Jabalpur, and Shahdol districts of Madhya Pradesh. Historically, there is no evidence of them. According to legends, Brahma Ji created the Universe and produced two people. He gave a plow to the first person and tangia to the other. Since the other one who had Tangia had no cloth at that time; so it was called the Nanga Baida tribe. As per the 2011 census, they have a population counting 89,744 among the total population of Tribes in India.